Cecilia Aguillón Institute of the Americas Director, Energy Transition Initiative
March 8, 2019 This article was fist published in PV Magazine
Durante décadas, los mercados de generación renovable distribuida (GD) han estado creciendo en el hemisferio occidental en áreas fuera de la red. Sin embargo, los proyectos fotovoltaicos conectados a la red están en apogeo, en la mayoría de los países América Latina que están desarrollando sus programas de transición energética. El último país en anunciar la promulgación de leyes para el mercado GD es Argentina.
En diciembre de 2018, Argentina publicó regulaciones para implementar la ley No. 27.191 para acelerar su mercado GD, descentralizar las fuentes de energía, reducir las emisiones y crear empleos. Al igual que con la mayoría de las medidas legales y reglamentarias incipientes, el éxito dependerá del diseño de políticas adecuadas que atraigan la inversión local y hagan crecer su mercado GD en forma sostenible. El momento no podría ser mejor, ya que los costos de la tecnología renovable se encuentran en su nivel más bajo en la historia, y Argentina puede aprender de las lecciones significativas de mercados más maduros, evitar errores y adaptar las mejores prácticas a su conjunto único de condiciones.
Los mercados de generación distribuida en América Latina han estado creciendo en los últimos diez años gracias a la rápida caída en los precios de los equipos solares y al aumento de los costos de la energía convencional. En enero, PV Magazine informó que Brasil alcanzó un total de 500 MW en instalaciones de GD. Un año antes, la revista informó que México había superado los 400 MW en 2017; y es muy probable que el mercado mexicano ya haya superado los 500 MW. Los países centroamericanos también han estado desarrollando sus mercados, aunque a un ritmo más lento Pero vale la pena mencionar que el líder del mercado en las Américas sigue siendo California, donde la Comisión de Servicios Públicos (CPUC) informó que 7.6 GW de capacidad instalada acumulada fue lograda al final del año 2018.
Desde los mercados altamente promocionados como California, México y Brasil, vemos políticas en común como son el aumento de los costos de la electricidad convencional, la fácil interconexión y la medición neta. Sin embargo, la medición neta puede no ser un motor de arranque en Argentina donde los distribuidores de electricidad y los operadores de la red parecen opuestos a esta política. Además, los precios de la electricidad en Argentina son artificialmente bajos, y actualmente se encuentran cerca de los USD $ 0.05 / kWh. Sin embargo, a partir de ese desafío hay una oportunidad para que el gobierno reduzca sus subsidios a la electricidad al mismo tiempo que sustituye las fuentes de energía limpia con un programa de GD bien diseñado y ejecutado. Cada vez está más claro que existen opciones para que Argentina pueda superar su conjunto único de desafíos.
Si reducir los subsidios a la energía es políticamente prohibitivo en Argentina e incluso los precios solares actuales no son rentables para la mayoría de usuarios, el mercado de GD podría beneficiar a los grandes consumidores de energía en el sector industrial que actualmente pagan más de USD $ 0,10 / kWh.
El Salvador y Guatemala, por ejemplo no ofrecen medición neta y el exceso de generación de sistemas fotovoltaicos se compensa a los precios de mayoreo, pero su recuperación es de casi menos de 5 años, según los instaladores locales, porque las tarifas de electricidad actuales son de dos dígitos. Para mercado de grandes usuarios de energía, la facilidad de las reglas de interconexión y el acceso a financiamiento de bajo costo pueden ser incentivos suficientes. Esto podría crear un impulso para acelerar la industria local, ya que los proveedores e instaladores de tecnología fotovoltaica pueden crecer, competir y reducir los costos de instalación. Si el país desea llegar a los consumidores residenciales que pagan menos de USD $ 0,10 / kWh, el desafío es mucho mayor.
La Comisión de Servicios Públicos de California enfrentó una situación similar al implementar la Iniciativa Solar del Estado. Aunque las tarifas de electricidad eran altas para comenzar, la tecnología era un 80% más cara que hoy, por lo que la energía solar no era factible cuando se creó la Iniciativa. Los subsidios se diseñaron para pagar los kWhs de energía solar producida por los clientes, pero los subsidios solo duraban cinco años porque ese fue el tiempo estimado y aceptable para el retorno de la inversión. De manera similar, los clientes de energía solar argentinos podrían obtener un subsidio basado en la producción de kWhs por un corto período de tiempo como incentivo para acelerar el mercado, especialmente cuando la medición neta no es una opción.
El fácil acceso y el bajo costo de financiamiento pueden ayudar a Argentina a promover el mercado de GD de manera efectiva. América Latina es conocida por sus altas tasas de interés, a menudo más del 10%. A pesar de que los costos de la energía fotovoltaica se encuentran en un mínimo histórico, el pago de una tasa de interés del 12% para un proyecto fotovoltaico industrial cambiaría la rentabilidad desde un par de años si se compra en efectivo hasta diez años o más cuando se financia. Por lo tanto, Argentina podría diseñar un programa de préstamos con tasas de interés más bajas que las actuales. El fondo podría recuperarse y regenerarse para ayudar a los futuros clientes. Un financiamiento factible podría hacer que los proyectos de GD sean rentables y el mercado crecería de inmediato.
Para que la Generación Distribuida prospere en Argentina, las inversiones en energía solar deben obtener un retorno de inversión razonable. Tener eso en mente y al mismo tiempo asegurarse de que los distribuidores de energía paguen una tarifa justa por el exceso de kWhs puede parecer complicado, pero estos son dos de los detalles más importantes a considerar para que las políticas de GD muevan al mercado. Afortunadamente, varios países en el mundo le brindan a Argentina un menú de herramientas de políticas que se pueden modificar y adaptar para arrancar un mercado con éxito.
United States Ambassador Theodore Edmonds Gildred, ambassador to Argentina from 1986 – 1989 during that country’s newfound democratic presidency, died on January 3, 2019, at his home in Montana. He lived primarily in North San Diego County, CA. Ambassador Gildred reported to President Reagan, President George H. W. Bush, and Secretary of State George Schultz. Ted was 83 years old. He had suffered serious illness for some time.
Lomas Santa Fe Inc.
In civilian life, Ambassador Gildred was an influential developer in the San Diego area for over 50 years, having received numerous awards, one of which acclaimed him a visionary in San Diego development. In north county San Diego, CA, his development company, Lomas Santa Fe Inc., built the vast majority of residences, shopping centers, parks, office buildings, and a country club in the sprawling Lomas Santa Fe section of Solana Beach. As Chairman of the Board and key shareholder, he founded Torrey Pines Bank there, which later became part of Wells Fargo Bank. In business, Lomas Santa Fe was his proudest achievement. But Ted had personal endeavors at which he excelled, as well.
In 1935, Ted was born in Mexico City to an American and Mexican developer, Theodore Gildred, and Maxine Gildred, an accomplished opera singer. Young Ted went to school in Mexico City and in San Diego. After graduating high school, he applied to and graduated from Leland Stanford Jr. University near Palo Alto, CA.
Life of Service
Ted volunteered for the United States Army in 1956 and served as an M.P. in Germany during the late years of the Marshall Plan of reconstruction. Off duty, as is the case in young peoples’ lives, Ted and his buddies were sometimes given to shenanigans, but, he said, he was proud to serve and that service made him grow up.
Spiriting out a Muscovite to Sweden
After that, Ted pursued studies at the Sorbonne in Paris and at the University of Heidelberg, Germany. During that period, just prior to Gary Powers’ U-2 being shot down over Russia, Ted made a trip to Moscow, U.S.S.R., and was instrumental in spiriting out a Muscovite to Sweden, where she lived a long, happy life. Years later Ted became friends with Powers.
Ted Gildred was a founding member of the Buenos Aires chapter of YPO, the Young Presidents’ Organization, which brings together young leaders throughout the world in order to promote understanding and cooperation between countries, cultures, and the unique challenges young entrepreneurs encounter.
French 24 Hours of Le Mans
Ted Gildred was a licensed racecar driver and collector of a wide range of significant, vintage cars. He raced for more than forty years, primarily throughout California. He enjoyed competing in many car rallies, as well, driving with friends and family. When he had a chance to sponsor and co-drive a car with the famous George Follmer at Le Mans in 1986, he sponsored the car but had to step out of the driver’s seat at the request of the United States Department of State pending his appointment to an Ambassadorship. Ted’s car, painted in proud American flag style, took 3rd overall and 1st in class at the world famous French 24 Hours of Le Mans that year.
Racing and collecting cars was not Ted’s only recreational passion. He was also an avid aviator, attaining the highest instrument rating available from the FAA. While in dire weather in Argentina, the Ambassador was even once asked to and did take the controls of the Embassy plane.
As Ambassador and as a pilot, he once had the great privilege of riding along with the Blue Angels. He was, like his father before him, inducted into the San Diego Air and Space Museum Hall of Fame. Ted twice re-enacted his father’s record-setting flight from San Diego to Quito, Ecuador. On the 50th anniversary he flew a depression-era aircraft. On the 75th anniversary, he flew a modern aircraft. At the end of the 1931 flight, Ted’s father donated his plane to the Ecuadorian Government teaching postal service pilots to fly the plane, thereby establishing the first airmail system over the Ecuadorian Andes. During the anniversary flights, Ted used the journeys to promote friendship opportunities between officials and dignitaries of Mexico, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, and Ecuador.
Theodore Edmonds Gildred, Ted, was attentive to charities, as well. He donated the land to build the Boys and Girls Club of Solana Beach, was one of the founders of the San Diego Community Foundation, and generously gave numerous other charitable gifts. He gave to many charities over the years, including the Scripps Institute, the Francis Parker School, Stanford University, UCSD, the Madison Valley Medical Center, and the Jonas Salk Institute. Dr. Salk had been a dear friend of Ted and of Ted’s father.
Institute of the Americas Founder
In 1982, Theodore Edmonds Gildred, having returned from a tour of Latin America where he met with heads of state and other dignitaries, founded the Institute of the Americas, seeding it with an ample endowment. With the help of Dr. Richard Atkinson, Ted convinced the University of California, San Diego and its Board of Regents to allow him to build several buildings at the University, one of which houses the Institute. Since then, the Institute of the Americas has raised money, facilitated influential relationships between people in all of South and North America, provided education for young scholars, produced research papers to the academy in order to promote discourse and understanding, and met with officials of governments, the World Bank, the IMF, and CAF to encourage stable, sustainable development and peace in Latin America. Its vital mission continues to this day.
Award-Winning Ranch Community
Ted and a partner bought the sprawling 27,000-acre Sun Ranch near Yellowstone Park in the Madison Valley of Montana, significantly improving it while preserving wildlife habitat. Years later, in the early 1990s, having sold the Sun Ranch, Ted created an award-winning ranch community across the Madison River on 2,000 acres he had purchased shortly after buying the Sun Ranch. Sun West Ranch was ahead of its time in responsible development concept of extraordinary lands, having selected discreet, ample acreage homesites away from the river in order to preserve the pristine landscape. 1,600 of the 2,000 acres is forever dedicated to open space. The development is so well designed that property owners and drivers-by do not see hidden homes within all the natural splendor.
After returning from Argentina in 1989 where polo is ubiquitous and Ted became an avid player, Ted helped found the first Polo Club in north San Diego County. He had always been a good horseman. He further belonged to several service clubs, as well, who honored him for his service and many achievements.
Ted never forgot how fortunate he was for his education. He understood how it opens opportunities for people. Theodore Edmonds Gildred funded permanent professorship chairs of Latin American Studies at Stanford University and of U.S.-Mexican Relations at University of California San Diego.
Love for his Family
All of these worldly accomplishments and more filled one of the fullest and, in Ted’s mind, luckiest lives ever lived. But combined, they did not compare to the love he had for his family. Ted was preceded in death by his brother, Stuart. Ted is survived by the love of his life, his wife, Heidi Coppin Gildred. He is survived by his sisters, Lynne Gildred of San Francisco and Helen Gildred of Marin County, CA. He is further survived by his children: Theodore Edmonds Gildred III of San Diego County, Jennifer Gildred Piper of Sonoma County, CA; Edward Gildred of Los Angeles; John Gildred of Los Gatos, CA; Tory Gildred Hober of Seattle, WA; Stephen Gildred of Del Mar, CA; and Kimberly Dunn O’Neill of Atascadero, CA. Ted is also survived by his four grandchildren, Maximillian Gildred, Joshua Gildred, Sara Gildred, and Harper Charlotte Hober as well as numerous nieces and nephews. At the end of the day, the love he had for each and all of these people was what mattered most to him. He loved each of them without qualification. He was indeed a busy man, an exacting man, and at times a stern and proud man. But, as the dust settled, he was most sure and heartened that he loved and did it for them.
November’s midterm elections altered the balance of power in Washington, and the new Democratic majority in the House of Representatives, which will mean new chairs on key committees, will play an important role in shaping US energy diplomacy and energy markets in the Western Hemisphere. At an event co-hosted by the Inter-American Dialogue and the Institute of the Americas, panelists discussed how the new Congress will approach key issues affecting energy within the context of Latin America’s evolving role in US trade and foreign policy.
In his keynote remarks, Nelson Cunningham, president of McLarty Associates, stressed that the approval of the United States Mexico Canada Agreement (USMCA) will take center stage as the new Congress assumes power, with major consequences for North American trade. Though the Democratic base has become increasingly pro-trade, Speaker-designate Nancy Pelosi and House Democrats may be reluctant to yield a major political win to President Donald Trump, and Pelosi could attempt to stall a vote on the deal as she did with the Colombia Free Trade Agreement in 2008.
At least publicly, Democratic leaders have expressed their desire to work with the president on reaching an agreement, which could deliver some minor improvements over the original North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), but they have concerns about elements related to labor and the environment, as well as about the deal’s overall enforceability, panelists noted. It remains to be seen whether the president is willing to negotiate or will resort immediately to his nuclear option: a unilateral withdrawal from NAFTA, which would leave Democrats with six months to decide between the USMCA and the grim alternative of no free trade deal at all. All parties would lose in North America’s highly integrated energy industry, including US refiners and gas producers that import crude oil, steel, and aluminum from both neighboring countries and export heavily to Mexico.
Beyond trade, Congress also has broad powers in global energy diplomacy. The House has important influence on areas such as foreign aid, tax policy, and natural gas exports. Panelists discussed strategic goals the new Congress can pursue next year, such as preventing oil from becoming part of conflicts in the region and reinforcing political stability and good governance. In particular, two new committee chairs will shoulder special responsibility in setting the agenda. Representative Eliot Engel, who will take the helm as chair of the House Foreign Affairs Committee, brings a strong track record in US-Latin America engagement, having previously chaired the Western Hemisphere Subcommittee. Representative Albio Sires will assume the top role on that subcommittee, and will emphasize his tough stance on Venezuela and on Cuba, where he was born. Closer cooperation on energy in the hemisphere will benefit both the US and Latin American partners, and in the current complex political environment, the new Congress should resolve not to let it fall by the wayside.
November 19, 2018 Institute of the Americas La Jolla, CA
At its November 15th, 2018 board meeting, the Institute of the Americas (IOA) announced a change in leadership. Effective November 19th, a new chairperson, vice-chair, and president will lead the organization. The IOA was founded 35 years ago by Ambassador Theodore E. Gildred Jr., in remembrance of his father, Theodore Gildred, Sr., both of whom lived and worked in Latin America. The IOA is a non-profit organization focused on promoting sound public policy and fostering cooperation between public and private sector stakeholders across the Western hemisphere.
After three years of service as the Institute’s president, Ambassador Jamal Khokhar announced that the “time has come for me to pursue new horizons.” He also added, “I greatly value my time working with the Institute’s team and Board of Directors and wish them every success as they move the Institution forward.”
Richard C. Hojel and Nelson W. Cunningham also successfully completed six-year tenures at the Institute’s helm as Chairperson and Vice Chair, respectively. They remain as Board members. Upon reflecting on his time as the Institute’s Chair, Mr. Hojel said, “It has been an honor to serve as Chairperson of the Institute of the Americas the last six years. I want to thank Nelson Cunningham, the entire Board of Directors and the IOA team for their unwavering support. It is time for a new team to take over the leadership of the Institute. I am confident Jorge Rosenblut, José Fimbres and Ted Gildred III will do a fantastic job.”
After working for decades as an executive leader in private industry and government, Mr. Jorge Rosenblut now works as an independent consultant helping clients incubate growth, encourage evolution from legacy practice, and transform business models to better manage disruption and re-emerge in their industries.
Mr. José Fimbres has been involved in food retail through Grupo Calimax S.A. and is a real estate developer of Industrial and commercial properties in Mexico.
Mr. Theodore E. Gildred III has sat on the Board of Directors of the Institute for nearly 20 years, and it is with great pride and enthusiasm that he is stepping in as President to steer the IOA toward a bright and exciting future. Mr. Gildred has extensive experience in Latin America and has worked for several years as an investment banker in New York and London specializing in Intra-Americas transactions. As the CEO of the Lomas Santa Fe Group and BV Resorts, LLC, he has focused on commercial hotel developments in the U.S. and Mexico.
The new leadership team echoes a central belief of the Board of Directors that in these challenging economic and political times, it is important to rely on Institutions like the IOA to help provide the necessary insight for companies and governments that aid timely decision making. The new leadership looks forward to strengthening IOA’s ties to Latin America through innovative ideas and joint cooperation with regional partners. The 35-year-old IOA is a needed and trusted locus where thought leaders, investors, government officials, and leading, experienced industry professionals can: have robust discussions on investment trends and opportunities; facilitate intense dialogue and policy debate; and, support high-level networking at its world-renowned headquarters on the UC San Diego campus in La Jolla, California.
The program’s objectives are to support participants to expand their knowledge and skills in the renewable energy sector (i.e. technology, markets, policies, economic and social dimensions); to further their understanding of the energy-women nexus & the possible link to energy poverty; and to expand their professional network to other regions of the world.
The aforementioned program initially hosted a group of 50 female executives, government officials, and academia in their mid-career in the field from APEC’s 21 economies.
Jacqueline and a group of fifteen fellow participants have been nominated to attend the one-week face-to face training in APEC HQ in Singapore to take place in late Oct. early November. The training will bring policy, gender and business experts to widen participants learning of social, gender and environmental co-benefits of renewable energy developments. It will take place during Singapore International Energy Week (SIEW).
With over 200 established biotechnology companies, Argentina has the second largest concentration per capita in Latin America. The largest category of biotech companies in Argentina belongs to Human Health. Its R&D investment intensity surpasses that of the Seed sector and receives roughly 146 million dollars, participating in almost 20% of total biotechnological R&D. This dynamism is further highlighted by the fact that two-thirds of these biotech companies were founded less than a decade ago. There over 40 research institutes dedicated to bio sciences and notable university programs specializing in this field.
The strength of the biotech sector in Argentina, the strong biotech sector in San Diego and Thousand Oaks, and the over 15 years of experience that the Institute has organizing professional journalism training workshops for Latin American journalists, brought together top tier journalists from Argentina for a week-long workshop focused on Biomedicine. From April 15th to 19th, the Institute of the Americas and Amgen co-hosted this program and invited eight distinguished Argentinian science journalists: Alejandra Folgarait, Federico Kukso, Valeria Román of Infobae, Florencia Ballarino of Perfil, Nora Bär of La Nacion, Florencia Maria Cunzolo of Clarin, Matias Loewy of Medscape, and Lucas Viano of La Voz for this unique opportunity to conduct innovative, hands-on, and experiential learning through this pilot program.
In San Diego, the distinguished guests were introduced to its innovation and biomedicine ecosystem. Dr. Mary Walshok, Dean of UC San Diego Extension and also an Institute Board Member, opened the event by framing the San Diego case within a sociological context that outlined important factors leading to the creation of this vibrant ecosystem. The event included representatives of important innovation intermediaries including Devora Rossi, Senior Innovation and Commercialization Manager at the Office of Innovation & Commercialization of UC San Diego, Jennifer Landress, Sr. VP and COO of Biocom, and Steve Hoey, VP of the Springboard Accelerator Program and Innovation Research at CONNECT San Diego. The program also included a presentation from Argentinian serial entrepreneur Diego Miralles, CEO of Vividion Therapeutics and dinner with local ex-pat scientists and researchers. Additionally, Matthew Bresnahan, Partner of Intellectual Property at Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati, discussed intellectual property and patents and Albert Vazquez, Business Angel at Tech Coast Angeles San Diego, shared the importance of angel investment for the growth of an innovation economy.
The workshop facilitated the opportunity for journalists to visit innovation centers such as Biolabs, Calit2, Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine, and Illumina. These site visits enabled the journalists to see firsthand the processes and investigations which occur in the facilities and be inspired by the prospects of bio medicine for the future.
At Thousand Oaks, the delegation visited Amgen’s headquarters to analyze more in depth the case study of a successful bio pharmaceutical company that started small and has now become a world leader in biotechnology and medicine that addresses serious illnesses. The journalists enjoyed an engaging overview from Sr. VP and General Manager of the Intercontinental Region, Gilles Marrache before presenting their own analysis of the Argentinian ecosystem.
The highlight of the program for the journalists was the first and second sessions of a modified Amen Biotech Experience (ABE) which the Amgen Foundation offers to empower teachers to bring biotechnology to their classrooms. Led by Professor Martin Ikkanda, creator of the content for the ABE Program, the delegation explored how to engineer DNA molecules to express genes coding for human biologic medicines. They inserted a gene, made a protein, and purified it during two short lab sessions.
The program included TED-style talks (TAD Talks – Technology, Amgen, and Design) to present and discuss important topics to science including Biosimilars, Science Education, and Immunology presented by three Amgen executives.
Motivated by the newly restructured focus of the Institute: Innovation & Entrepreneurship and Energy & Sustainability, we hope to continue to offer journalistic programs focused on innovation reporting and innovations to reporting methods as one of our pillars in the Institute’s Innovation and Entrepreneurship (I&E) Program. These efforts seeks to convene different stakeholders of the innovation ecosystem in order to help educate, inform, and inspire leaders that will have a multiplying effect on these important hemispheric issues. Capacity building workshops, journalism initiatives, and STEM student and teacher camps are ways that we are helping harness the innovative potential in Latin America. The Institute seeks to increase its involvement throughout the region and continue to provide opportunities for collaboration and growth.
Join us on April 24th at 8am (San Diego time) for a new #Webinar and discussion with Emily Hersh, Managing Partner at @DCDBGroup "#Lithium in Focus: What exactly is it, why does #SouthAmerica have so much of it and how should it be developed?" https://t.co/1AnA0h5uZJ
Yesterday, @GlennHamer @EAnthonyWayne @Paola_SDRCC @MayorPeteSaenz and @Chris_E_Wilson discussed the potential consequences of a shutdown of the U.S.-Mexico border. Check out the podcast here: https://t.co/S2RBLYQypM
This morning we had breakfast with Enrique Hidalgo, President of @exxonmobil Mexico, and Tania Ortiz Mena, President of Ienova. Afterwards, our conference on Mexico’s energy sector, also included GPS Professor David Victor and @iamericas Vice President Jeremy Martin.